Phytochemical Profiling, Green Synthesis, and Bioactivity Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) Synthesized from Ipomoea laxiflora Extract

This study focuses on the eco-friendly production of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract from Ipomoea laxiflora and assesses their antioxidant and hemolytic effects. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using this species. Green synthesis offers immense potential in both medical and environmental fields, aiming to utilize less hazardous chemicals. Plant-based synthesis, in particular, is considered safe and effective due to the presence of reducing and capping agents within plant extracts. Ipomoea laxiflora H.J. Chowdhery & Debta, belonging to the Convolvulaceae family, is an annual climber native to Tropical Africa and India. It has been traditionally used to treat fever, headaches, and stomach aches. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, and cardio glycosides. Quantification of phytochemical contents, including total phenolic, flavonoid, and proanthocyanin content, was also performed. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis indicated characteristic peak values of major functional groups such as alkene, alkane, and carbonyl. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by adding 10 mL of methanolic leaf extract to 90 mL of 1 mM aqueous silver nitrate solution, followed by heating at 80 degrees Celsius for three hours with continuous stirring. The change in color from yellow to dark brown confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles. The antioxidant activity, determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay, showed 94% scavenging activity for methanolic extract compared to 98% for ascorbic acid. Higher concentrations exhibited increased scavenging activity. Total antioxidant activity ranged from 60% to 89% in hexane and methanol extracts, with methanol showing the highest concentration. Hemolytic activity was observed between concentrations of 10 to 100 µg/ml, with a hemolysis rate of 2.751% at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. The development of green nanoparticles using natural sources like Ipomoea laxiflora holds significant importance for environmental sustainability, health benefits, diverse biomedical applications, resource efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. Embracing such green approaches not only advances nanotechnology but also aligns with broader goals of promoting sustainable development.